Various liquid fuels for cars and planes: biodiesel, ethanol, liquid gas, hydrogen?
Updated on November 15, 2016 Dr. John Anderson moreDr. John applies his scientific (PhD) analysis abilities margin:0px !vital;” /> There may be a whole lot of debate about when the peak international oil production will, or has occurred, various estimated ranging from 2005 (it has already peaked) to someday between now and 2018. The Hubbert Peak, typically corresponds with the purpose when 50% of all possible recoverable oil on earth has been used. A latest study performed by Dr. C. J. Campbell is proven in the determine with numerous extrapolations (Ref A). The 4 completely different strains on the graph (Fig 1) correspond to the four possible scenarios happening from1996 onward. It can be seen that regardless of which model actually occurs, the result is reasonably fixed. This is because the final word dimension of the useful resource ( the cumulative total manufacturing) is a continuing worth. While it could also be attainable to change the shape of the curve, one can not alter the area beneath it which is the accumulated oil reserve. The ‘premature peakwithin the early 1970s corresponds to the oil crisis of 1973. Additionally see the graphs Figures 2 and three for World Oil Manufacturing modelling (Ref B).
As shown in Figure 3, the models means that world production will peak about 2014, and then it’s going to decline to about forty% of current production in 2050.
The world crude oil reserves are declining at an annual charge of about 2%.
Figure 4 reveals the mannequin for the cumulative world oil production and actual knowledge. As soon as once more there is an efficient match with the data.
World Oil Manufacturing Outlook
Clearly there are ominous signs that the world’s oil reserves are near the peak of manufacturing and are prone to decrease within the near future. The modelling also reveals that we have now depleted near half the full oil reserves on the planet, and that oil can be virtually depleted (right down to 20% of present manufacturing) in the following 50 years.
It is time to be taking a look at replacements for liquid fuels – firstly for street transport and secondly for air transport.
Various Fuels for Street Transport
Air engine – The air engine is a piston engine driven by compressed air as a no-waste source of energy. The enlargement of the extremely compressed air, stored in excessive-pressure tanks, is used to drive the pistons and move the automobile. The one exhaust is cool air, which could possibly be used for air conditioning the car. The energy to compress the air has to come back from standard sources (electricity).
Battery Electric Automobiles – are electric vehicles driven by batteries by which power is stored chemically – lead-acid, nickel metallic hydride, NiCd, absorbed glass mat, Li-poly, Li-ion and zinc-air batteries. The energy stored in the batteries is derived from typical sources. Electric cares had been first developed in the 1890’s, and had been lately re-developed.
Photo voltaic – A solar automotive is an electric automobile powered by photo voltaic panels on the automotive that charge batteries. The propulsion system is similar to battery electric vehicles.
Ammonia Fueled Automobiles – Ammonia GreenNH3 has been successfully trialled in Canada. It can be run in conventional spark ignition and diesel engines with some engines with minor engine modifications. It can be used in jet engines and may be made from renewable electricity. It has only about half the density of petrol or diesel will be saved in tanks. Its toxicity will be managed and the emission are solely nitrogen and water.
Biofuels – Ethanol, Methanol and Butanol – The use of these fuels shouldn’t be new, as the first industrial vehicle that used ethanol was the famous Ford Mannequin T, produced from 1908 – 1927. Its carburetor could be adjusted to be used of ethanol or gasoline or ethanol, or some combination of both. While ethanol, methanol butanol have been use as an automotive fuel, they’ve traditionally been produced chemically from petroleum or pure gas. Ethanol (and butanol) could be derived organically as renewable assets and could be simply produced from fermentation of sugar or starch in varied crops and organic waste together with grain, sugar beets, sugarcane, and even milk lactose. Howvee there was heated debate in regards to the merits of utilizing food merchandise for gasoline manufacturing (2008 meals vs fuel debate). Most modern vehicles, without modification, may be run with as much as 10% – 15% ethanol combined with gasoline (E10-E15) and with minor upgrades will be run with ethanol concentrations as excessive as eighty five% (E85), and up to 100% (E100) in warmer climates comparable to Brazil. Ethanol has about a third lower less energy per volume than gasoline.
Biodiesel – The efficiency of Diesel engines is about 45% compared with simply 25-30% in gasoline engines and diesel has a slightly larger energy density per volume.. Biodiesel is produced organically from vegetable and animal by-products. Many oil-seed farmers use a biodiesel mix in their tractors and different tools to advertise a ‘grow your own’ campaign. Many Diesel-powered automobiles can run easily, or with minor engine modifications on 100% pure vegetable oils.
Biogas – Compressed Biogas can be utilized for spark-plug engines after purification of the raw gas to remove water, hydrogen sulphide and other impurities and particles.
Charcoal – Within the nineteen thirties Chinese language cars had been run on charcoal.
Compressed Pure Gasoline – High pressure compressed pure gas, which is mostly methane, can be utilized in normal combustion engines and the burning of methane produces the lowest quantity CO2 of all fossil fuels. Gasoline cars may be retrofitted with gas cylinders and the automobiles might be switched between gas and petroleum.
Unconventional Gas (Coal Seam Fuel) is gasoline (principally methane) that’s trapped in impermeable arduous rock or sandstone, in coal seams and in shale deposits.
Hydrogen/Gas Cell – Hydrogen can be used as a fuel either via combustion or by way of fuel-cell conversion into electricity for powers electric motors. With both strategies, the only emission is water from the mixture of oxygen and hydrogen.
Oxyhydrogen – This entails using oxygen and hydrogen made by electrolysis of water. It can be used in inside combustion engines. The stored gases might be dangerous and the power to produce the gasoline has to come back from other sources.
Liquid Nitrogen – Liquid nitrogen works in the same technique to compressed air, but the nitrogen gasoline can e saved in a liquid type. When the liquid nitrogen is heated the pressurized nitrogen gasoline can be utilized to energy a piston or turbine engine.
LPG or Autogas LPG – is a low stress liquefied petroleum gasoline mixture largely of propane and butane which burns in typical piston engines with less CO2 emissions than gasoline. Automobiles and trucks cars can be retrofitted with gasoline tanks and develop into dual gasoline autos.
Steam – Steam cars, which have been developed within the early 1900s use a steam engine, burning wood, ethanol, coal, charcoal or different materials. The gas is burned in a boiler and the heat is used to transform water into pressurised steam. When the water turns to steam, it expands. The growth creates stress. The stress pushes the pistons to drive the wheels. be vaporized into steam, benefiting from the heat that would otherwise be wasted.
Wood fuel – Wooden gas can be utilized to run spark-plug engine utilizing a wooden gasifier. This technique was commonly used during World War II when conventional fuels had been scarce.
A number of Gasoline Sources / Hybrid – This entails using one of more combinations of the methods listed above. A hybrid vehicle makes use of multiple propulsion systems to drive the car together with recovering energy throughout braking. The commonest type is the gasoline-electric hybrid car sort, which makes use of energy stored in batteries and gasoline (petrol) tanks.
Various Liquid Jet Aviation Fuels
Aviation consumes about 2% of all fossil fuels burnt – about 11 % of the gas consumed by the transportation sector, compared with about eighty% used for highway transport. A lot of the gasoline is derived from oil as a kerosene/paraffin fuel often called JET A-1. The use of different fuels for aviation will not be a brand new:
Early jet engines had been developed using hydrogen
In the late 1970s, synthetic aviation fuels were produced and trialled in planes. These fossil based fuels were derived from shale oil, tar sands and coal liquids derived from coal.
Within the early 1980s, Brazil developed ‘prosene’ based on vegetable oil but the event was discontinued in favour of organically derived biodiesel and biokerosene.
South Africa has developed a semi-synthetic aviation fuel, SASOL, which is a mixture of synthetic and petroleum derived kerosene. A 50% – 50% mix has been tested and approved for aviation.
Alternative fuel options and requirements
The primary criteria for creating various aviation fuels are related to maintaining the effectivity of the plane design and the engines. Planes could have to be redesigned to hold additional weight, to retailer the fuel and to burn the choice fuels. Aircraft have to be lightweight with environment friendly engines and wings. Aviation fuels must have a high vitality content material per unit quantity and weight and to be from sustainable sources. Among the alternatives are listed beneath:
Artificial liquid fuels (Syn-Jet) – Artificial fuel or synfuel is any liquid gasoline derived from pure gas, coal, or biomass and probably from other sources corresponding to tar sand, oil shale, waste plastics. The Synthetic liquid gas produced is nearly similar to kerosene, but extra processing could required to deal with particulates and the results of low temperatures on the fuels. These fuels produce equal levels of carbon dioxide to petroleum kerosene and should not have global warming benefits for fossil based mostly supply materials.
Bio-jet – gas can bemade from agricultural oil crops like canola and soya. The artificial or biojet fuels of the longer term must be processed to meet jet fuel specifications.
Ethanol is not an excellent choice for long-haul aircraft as ethanol fuelled aircraft would want a lot larger wings and engines lowering gas efficiency (Fig 5, Ref C).
Hydrogen use in plane has been proved and could also be a really lengthy-time period option however would require resigned aircraft (Fig 6, Ref C) and major floor infrastructure changes.
Aviation Fuel Options
Conclusion: What are the best Various Fuels for Planes?
Our Energy Future: Introduction to Renewable Vitality and Biofuels Buy Now Green Aviation: Discount of Environmental Impact Through Aircraft Know-how and Different Fuels (Sustainable Vitality Developments) Purchase Now The requirements for aviation fuel rely on the burden/power ratio and the amount/power ratio for the gas. Determine 7, (Ref C) reveals that Syn-Jet /Bio-Jet fuels are the perfect by way of Volume/Energy content material and Liquid hydrogen is best by way of Weight/ Vitality Content material.
Aircraft Design – because synthetic bio-jet fuel and artificial jet fuel made from coal and natural fuel have about the same quantity, weight and efficiency characteristics of current oil-derived jet gas, they can be comparatively easy to use and never have an effect on the design of the aircraft.
Ethanol-powered airplanes – would have to be specifically designed. Determine 5 shows a modified design with larger wings. Ethanol requires about sixty five % extra storage volume for a similar quantity of vitality as kerosene gasoline, and Ethanol also weighs more, requiring bigger wings and less environment friendly aircraft.
Hydrogen (and methane) powered airplanes – As a result of Hydrogen must be stored in its liquid cryogenic type there are insulation and pressurization points. Because of this liquid hydrogen and other liquefied fuel fuels cannot be saved in the wings and planes would need to be enlarged to allow for tanks in the fuselage (Fig5, Ref C)
Sustainability and Carbon Buying and selling Implications – For an extended-term power solutions, the liquid gasoline must be sustainable and there are carbon trading issues. Synthetic fuels derived from coal or pure gasoline, are usually not sustainable. Biofuels are derived from plants and are sustainable, in order that Bio-Jet gas becomes an option, but the competitors with food production additionally turns into a problem.
Further analysis is required to establish the sustainable alternatives and the technique to make the transition perhaps using Syn-Jet made from coal and fuel as an interim solution. Aviation Biofuel needs to be developed particularly when carbon buying and selling starts in earnest, worldwide.
Given that world oil production is close to its peak the need to develop a strategy is urgent. John Anderson
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